1990 Dissertation Distance Field In Learning Onwards Written

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After that time the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread.

Universities' shift to research-oriented education (based upon the scientific method, inquiry, and observation) increased the doctorate's importance.

The habilitation (highest available degree) demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding.

The habilitation follows the research doctorate, and in Germany it can be a requirement for appointment as a Privatdozent or professor.

These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa.

The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU, and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications.In some countries like China and Japan, the word "doctorate" is practically indistinguishable from "Ph D" in most contexts.In disciplines such as education, engineering and pharmacology where professional degrees Ed D, Eng D and Pharm D are usually awarded in the western countries, a doctorate degree recipient is called a Ph D regardless.A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi ("licence to teach").In most countries, it is a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M. at Kings College (now Columbia University) after the medical school's founding in 1767, The MD became the standard first degree in medicine during the 19th century, but as a three-year undergraduate degree; it did not become established as a graduate degree until 1930.The MD, as the standard qualifying degree in medicine, gave that profession the ability (through the American Medical Association, established in 1847 for this purpose) to set and raise standards for entry into professional practice.Following the MD, the next professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor (J.D.), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902.Many universities also award honorary doctorates to individuals deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society. the doctorate) was originally reserved to the Catholic church, which required the applicant to pass a test, to take an oath of allegiance and to pay a fee.The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed access—at that time largely free of charge—to all able applicants. This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the universities, which were slowly distancing themselves from the Church.

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