Ad Hoc Network Thesis

Ad Hoc Network Thesis-78
In addition, the advancement in wireless mobile technology has created a new communication paradigm via which a wireless network can be created without any priori infrastructure called mobile ad hoc network (MANET).While progress is being made towards improving the efficiencies of mobile devices and reliability of wireless mobile networks, the mobile technology is continuously facing the challenges of un-predictable disconnections, dynamic mobility and the heterogeneity of routing protocols.Various schemes have been proposed to handle jamming attack in the literature.

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Some examples of routing attacks are: black hole, 9gray hole, wormhole, rushing attack, and frame-up [{7].

For example, the at- tackers can create a wormhole through collusion in the network to short circuit the normal °ow of routing packets [5], or can apply rushing attack to disseminate route request quickly through the network [6].

The advances in low power micro-processors, wireless networks and embedded systems have raised the need to utilize the significant resources of mobile devices.

These devices for example, smart phones, tablets, laptops, wearables, and sensors are gaining enormous processing power, storage capacity and wireless bandwidth.

By creating a wormhole or apply- ing rushing attacks, the attackers can prevent good routes from being discovered, and increase their chance of being on discovered routes.

Once an attacker is on a certain route, it can create a black hole by dropping all the packets passing through it, or create a gray hole by selectively dropping some packets passing through it.

By using some spreading codes only known to the communicating peers, nodes have created a secret channel among them.

Recently, several new approaches have also been proposed to handle jamming attacks in a more e±cient way, such as those proposed in [0, 55, 8, 8, 8].

However, there are no single generic ad hoc routing protocols available so far, which can address all the basic challenges of MANET as mentioned before.

Thus this diverse range of ever growing routing protocols has created barriers for mobile nodes of different MANET taxonomies to intercommunicate and hence wasting a huge amount of valuable resources.

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