America became thus less exceptional than it appeared to be in 1905.
Since Sombart, modernisation theory has given way to more institutional (and political) theories of the development of the welfare state and social rights.
He points at three possible explanations: a strong belief in political rights and universal suffrage, the stability of the two-party political system and the lack of a class distinction between the two parties.
Since 1905 however socialism has indeed not taken off in the United States, but social rights have definitively been introduced in the twentieth century in the wake of Roosevelt's New Deal and Johnson's Great Society programs.
It is thus not the introduction and expansion of social rights per se that contributes to citizenship.
An inclusionary polity is rooted not in the existence of social rights, but in the circumstances through which social rights are imagined, acquired and distributed.Social rights can also be modelled in a more paternalistic fashion in order to sustain social stability, community's welfare or economic participation.The essays on national cases give many examples of this.“Citizenship is the right to have rights” was famously claimed by Hannah Arendt.The case of the Slovenian erased sheds new light on this assumption that was supposedly put to rest after World War II.In her introductory chapter Kessler-Harris cites examples of such a mechanism -for example the case of Public Housing in New York as described by Cinotto in this book.When such a detour-mechanism is universal, social rights and citizenship are, notwithstanding a paternalistic design, positively related.Access to society journal content varies across our titles.If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box.Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in.(2009), a collection of essays by historians and social scientists on the development of social rights and the consequences for citizenship in Europe and the United States. This idea is not self-evident: the social rights introduced by Bismarck in Germany in the late nineteenth century and by fascist and communist governments in the first half of the twentieth century were a way to silence discontent and to enhance loyalty to the state.