Deviance is behavior that violates norms and rules of society, and crime is a type of deviant behavior that violates the formal criminal law.Criminology is the study of crime from a scientific perspective.Sociologists study the conditions, including race, class, and gender inequality, that pro- duce crime and shape how different groups are treated by the criminal justice system, such as showing group differences in sentencing.
Social stigmas are attributes that are socially devalued.
Substance abuse includes alcohol and drug abuse but is not limited to these two forms.
Deviance is behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms and that should be understood in the social context in which it occurs.
Psychological explanations of deviance place the cause of deviance primarily within the individual.
Conflict theory explains deviance and crime as a consequence of unequal power relationships and inequality in society.
Symbolic interaction theory explains deviance and crime as the result of meanings people give to various behaviors.
Functionalist theory sees both deviance and crime as functional for the society because it affirms what is acceptable by defining what is not.
Structural strain theory, a type of functionalist theory, predicts that societal inequalities actually force and compel the individual into deviant and criminal behavior.
Other global crimes of significance are bioterrorism and cyber terrorism.
Osama bin Ladens al Qaeda organization, assumed to be the organization that destroyed the World Trade Center and killed over 3000 individuals, was centered in Afghanistan and was central to the international drug trade.