Rationale Guide: This free Rationale Guide gives an introduction into critical thinking with Rationale.
You can find it in the ribbon at the top of the Rationale editor. Reasoning for Knowledge (The first parts of each tutorial are free, the rest free accessible with a Rationale subscription). Reasoning and Communicating with Rationale – including a Self-study Guide – available in print here.
From the Introduction: is mainly focussed on teaching people how to think clearly about contentious issues, and has very successfully popularized a diagrammatic method of argument development.
My experiences in the classroom have taught me that this diagrammatic approach is also a great starting point for writing all types of scientific text.
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This engaging, colorful 152-page book teaches the most important critical thinking concepts every student should know. 114 moo86677_fm_iv 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS The Credibility of Sources 118 Credibility and the News Media 121 Government Management of the News Bias Within the Media 123 Talk Radio 126 The Internet, Generally 126 Wikipedia 128 Blogs 128 Advertising Recap 122 130 134 Exercises 135 Chapter 5 Persuasion Through Rhetoric: Common Devices and Techniques Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Stereotypes Innuendo 147 148 Rhetorical Definitions and Rhetorical Explanations 149 151 153 Loaded Questions Weaselers 154 154 Downplayers 156 Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm Hyperbole 157 158 Proof Surrogates 159 Rhetorical Analogies and Misleading Comparisons Persuasion Using Visual Images Recap v 160 163 169 Exercises 169 Chapter 6 More Rhetorical Devices: Psychological and Related Fallacies 183 The “Argument” from Outrage Scare Tactics 184 186 Other Fallacies Based on Emotions Rationalizing 191 Everyone Knows . 466 Recap 467 Additional Exercises 469 Appendix 1 Essays for Analysis (and a Few Other Items) 472 Selection 1: “Three Strikes and the Whole Enchilada” Selection 2: “Controlling Irrational Fears After 9/11” 472 473 Selection 3: Excerpts from Federal Court Ruling on the Pledge of Allegiance 475 Selection 4: “Gays’ Impact on Marriage Underestimated” by Jeff Jacoby 476 Selection 5: “Bush’s Environmental Record” by Bob Herbert moo86677_fm_ix 478 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages x CONTENTS Selection 6: “Death Penalty Has No Place in the U. “And there are some important concepts that need dealing with in several chapters,” Parker continued. “We have a great new take on the two inductive argument chapters.” “And more stuff on visuals,” Parker tacked on. 111 Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information? moo86677_fm_v 188 192 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages vi CONTENTS The Subjectivist Fallacy The Relativist Fallacy 194 195 Two Wrongs Make a Right 196 Red Herring/Smoke Screen Recap 197 199 Exercises 200 Chapter 7 More Fallacies The Ad Hominem Fallacy 211 211 The Personal Attack Ad Hominem 212 The Inconsistency Ad Hominem 212 The Circumstantial Ad Hominem 214 Poisoning the Well 214 The Genetic Fallacy 214 “Positive Ad Hominem Fallacies” 215 Straw Man 215 False Dilemma 217 The Perfectionist Fallacy 220 The Line-Drawing Fallacy 220 Slippery Slope 221 Misplacing the Burden of Proof Begging the Question Recap 222 226 228 Exercises 229 Chapter 8 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic Categorical Claims 254 256 Venn Diagrams 257 Translation into Standard Form The Square of Opposition 263 Three Categorical Operations 258 265 Conversion 265 Obversion 266 Contraposition 266 Categorical Syllogisms 273 The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity moo86677_fm_vi 275 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises Real-Life Syllogisms 279 The Rules Method of Testing for Validity 283 Recap vii 278 285 Additional Exercises 286 Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols 297 298 Claim Variables 298 Truth Tables 298 Symbolizing Compound Claims 304 “If” and “Only If” 308 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions “Unless” 312 “Either . .” 312 310 Truth-Functional Arguments 314 The Truth-Table Method 314 The Short Truth-Table Method Deductions 318 322 Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns 323 Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences 328 Conditional Proof 334 Recap 338 Additional Exercises 338 Chapter 10 Three Kinds of Inductive Arguments 346 Arguing from the General to the Specific (Inductive Syllogisms) 347 Arguing from the Specific to the General (Inductive Generalizing) 348 Examples 351 Inductive Arguments from Analogy 353 Attacking the Analogy 358 Random Variation, Error Margins, and Confidence Levels 358 Everyday Inductive Arguments 360 Informal Error-Margin and Confidence-Level Indicators Fallacies in Inductive Reasoning Illicit Inductive Conversions moo86677_fm_vii 360 361 363 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages viii CONTENTS Analogies: The Rest of the Story Polls: Problems and Pitfalls 364 366 Self-Selected Samples 366 Slanted Questions 368 Playing by the Numbers Recap 368 371 Exercises 373 Chapter 11 Causal Explanation Two Kinds of Explanations 385 386 Physical Causal Explanations 386 Behavioral Causal Explanations 387 Explanatory Adequacy: A Relative Concept 389 The Importance of Testability 389 Nontestable Explanations 389 Circular Explanations 392 Unnecessary Complexity 392 Forming Hypotheses 393 The Method of Difference 393 The Method of Agreement 394 Causal Mechanisms and Background Knowledge The Best Diagnosis Method 397 General Causal Claims 396 399 Confirming Causal Hypotheses 400 Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments 400 Alternative Methods of Testing Causal Hypotheses in Human Populations 402 Nonexperimental Cause-to-Effect Studies 402 Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies 403 Experiments on Animals 403 Mistakes in Causal Reasoning 404 Confusing Effect with Cause in Medical Tests Overlooking Statistical Regression 406 Proof by Absence of Disproof 409 Appeal to Anecdote 409 Confusing Explanations with Excuses 410 Causation in the Law moo86677_fm_viii 405 410 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Recap ix 413 Exercises 413 Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning Value Judgments 437 Moral Versus Nonmoral 438 Two Principles of Moral Reasoning 438 Moral Principles 440 Deriving Specific Moral Value Judgments Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning Consequentialism 441 Duty Theory/Deontologism Moral Relativism 445 Religious Relativism 445 Religious Absolutism 446 Virtue Ethics 446 Moral Deliberation Legal Reasoning 436 440 441 443 447 456 Justifying Laws: Four Perspectives Aesthetic Reasoning 457 460 Eight Aesthetic Principles 460 Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value 462 Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth 464 Why Reason Aesthetically?It is an active, step-by-step learning process, with plenty of practice of a sort that instills in readers a growing sense of mastery and, with it, a desire to continue to improve.The illustrations, diagrams, and easy to understand explanations help kids learn to assess available evidence and use it to intelligently evaluate claims and arguments before making decisions.In addition to being a course in critical thinking, the activities in this book can be used to supplement lessons in all subjects.Although this book teaches common argument forms, its primary focus is identifying and evaluating evidence–the very basis of critical thinking.If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The Mc Graw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Moore, Brooke Noel. It was a surprise the first time a young professor came up to us at a meeting and told us he was teaching from this book, and that its first edition had been his text when he took his own critical thinking course. 2 The Basics: Claims, Issues, and Arguments Claims 6 Issues 6 Arguments 10 What Arguments Are Not Further Confusions 5 11 12 Arguments and Explanations 12 Arguments and Persuasion 13 Two Kinds of Good Arguments 14 Deductive Arguments 14 Inductive Arguments 14 Recognizing Arguments 15 The Two Parts of an Argument 15 The Language of Arguments 15 Other Terms and Concepts Truth 16 Knowledge 17 Value Judgments 16 17 Extraneous Considerations: Logical Window Dressing A Word About the Exercises Recap 21 21 Exercises 22 Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning Arguments: General Features 41 41 Conclusions Used as Premises 42 Unstated Premises and Conclusions moo86677_fm_iii 19 43 7/2/08 PM Revised Pages iv CONTENTS Two Kinds of Arguments 44 Deductive Arguments 44 Inductive Arguments 45 Beyond a Reasonable Doubt 48 Deduction, Induction, and Unstated Premises Techniques for Understanding Arguments 48 50 Clarifying an Argument’s Structure 51 Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing 53 Evaluating Arguments 54 Recap 55 Exercises 55 Chapter 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing 69 Vagueness 71 Ambiguity 75 Semantic Ambiguity 76 Grouping Ambiguity 77 Syntactic Ambiguity 80 Generality 82 Defining Terms 82 Purposes of Definitions 84 Kinds of Definitions 86 Some Tips on Definitions 86 Writing Argumentative Essays 87 Good Writing Practices 89 Essay Types to Avoid 89 Persuasive Writing 90 Writing in a Diverse Society Recap 91 92 Exercises 93 Chapter 4 Credibility The Claim and Its Source 105 107 Assessing the Content of the Claim 111 Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations? com moo86677_fm_ii 6/23/08 PM Confirming Pages iii Table of Contents Preface xi Acknowledgments xvii About the Authors xix Chapter 1 Critical Thinking Basics 1 What Is Critical Thinking?