Epenthesis English

Epenthesis English-27
Finnish has moraic consonants, of which L, H and N are of interest in this case.In standard Finnish, these are slightly intensified when preceding a consonant in a medial cluster, e.g. Some dialects, like Savo and Ostrobothnian, employ epenthesis instead, using the preceding vowel in clusters of type -l C- and -h C-, and in Savo, -nh-. (An exception is that in Pohjanmaa, -lj- and -rj- become -li- and -ri-, respectively, e.g. It is also possible that OJ /ame/, and the /s/ is not epenthetic but simply retained archaic pronunciation. One hypothesis argues that Japanese /r/ developed "as a default, epenthetic consonant in the intervocalic position".

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This means that epenthesized segments may actually fail to surface—if a later rule deletes that segment.

The pattern may also be rendered opaque if the original triggering environment is altered by the action of subsequent rules (counter-bleeding); or if the relevant environment surfaces only later, failing to trigger epenthesis (counter-feeding).

Epenthesis may be divided into two types: excrescence (if the sound added is a consonant) and anaptyxis (if the sound added is a vowel). However it is correct to call this epenthesis when viewed synchronically, since the modern basic form of the verb is a, and the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form.

A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.

For example, the cartoon character Yogi Bear says "pic-a-nic basket" for "picnic basket." Another example is to be found in the chants of England football fans in which England is usually rendered as , or the pronunciation of "athlete" as "ath-e-lete".

Some apparent occurrences of epenthesis, however, have a separate cause: the pronunciation of nuclear as nucular arises out of analogy with other -cular words (binocular, particular, etc.), rather than epenthesis.Other terms that are often used synonymously with epenthesis include “insertion,” “intrusion,” and “linking,” although the latter two may also be used to refer only to certain specific kinds of epenthesis.Epenthesis may occur in a variety of environments: intervocalically, interconsonantally, word or syllable initially, and word or syllable finally.Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages which use affixes. Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language, though this is not always the cause.Languages use various vowels for this purpose, though schwa is quite common when it is available.In Old English, this was ane in all positions, so a diachronic analysis would see the original n disappearing except where a following vowel required its retention: an A limited number of words in Japanese use epenthetic consonants to separate vowels, example of this is the word harusame (春雨, spring rain) which is a compound of haru and ame in which an /s/ is added to separate the final /u/ of haru and the initial /a/ of ame.Since epenthetic consonants are not used regularly in modern Japanese, it is possible that this epenthetic /s/ is a hold over from Old Japanese. One example is the word baai (場合, situation), which is a combination of ba (場, place) and ai (合い, meet): in some dialects it is pronounced bawai.Within this framework epenthesis can occur in any environment and involve any segment.Furthermore, a rule of epenthesis may be ordered with respect to other rules in any sequence whatsoever.In Finnish, there are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels.One epenthetic vowel is the preceding vowel, found in the illative case ending -(h)*n, e.g. (There is no schwa in Finnish; the term "schwa" is often confused with the epenthetic vowel.) The second one is , connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings, e.g. In standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels. Even if the word, such as a personal name, is not loaned, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word. (Inter)net → netti, or in the case of personal name, Bush -sta → Bushista "about Bush".


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