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The Merger Treaty 1965 finally placed the ECSC and Euratom within the EEC.
Even then, the English Civil War broke out and the tensions did not fully end until the Glorious Revolution of 1688, by Parliament inviting William and Mary of Orange from Holland to the throne, and passing the Bill of Rights 1689.
In 1693 William Penn, a Quaker from London who founded Pennsylvania in North America, argued that to prevent ongoing wars in Europe a "European dyet, or parliament" was needed.
A referendum in the UK of 51.89% to leave, 48.11% to remain, on a 72.21% turnout in June 2016 led the Prime Minister to resign, and left the UK's membership uncertain.
In the West, the decision was made through Treaty of Rome 1957 to launch the first European Economic Community.
In 1517, the Protestant Reformation triggered a hundred years of crisis and instability.
Martin Luther nailed a list of demands to the church door of Wittenberg, King Henry VIII declared a unilateral split from Rome with the Act of Supremacy 1534, and conflicts flared across the Holy Roman Empire until the Peace of Augsburg 1555 guaranteed each principality the right to its chosen religion (cuius regio, eius religio).Spain also applied and was rejected as it was still led by the Spanish State.The same year, the Court of Justice proclaimed that the Community constituted a "new legal order of international law".New states may join the EU, if they agree to operate by the rules of the organisation, and existing members may leave according to their "own constitutional requirements".Citizens are able to vote directly in elections to the Parliament, while their national governments operate on behalf of them in the Council of the European Union and the European Council. The Council of the European Union represents member state governments, while the Court of Justice is meant to uphold the rule of law and human rights.It shared the Assembly and Court with the Coal and Steel Community, but set up parallel bodies for the Council and Commission.Based on the Spaak Report of 1956, it sought to break down all barriers to trade in a common market for goods, services, labour and capital, and prevent distortion of competition and regulate areas of common interest like agriculture, energy and transport.In 1950, the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed that, beginning with integration of French and German coal and steel production, there should be "an organisation open to the participation of the other countries of Europe", where "solidarity in production" would make war "not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible".The Treaty of Paris 1951 created the first European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), signed by France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy, with Jean Monnet as its president.The French diplomat, Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, who worked negotiating the Treaty of Utrecht at the end of the War of Spanish Succession proposed, through "Perpetual Union", "an everlasting peace in Europe", After the Napoleonic Wars and the Revolutions of 1848 in the 19th century, Victor Hugo at the International Peace Congress in 1849 envisioned a day when there would be a "United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas".World War I devastated Europe's society and economy, and the Versailles Treaty failed to establish a workable international system in the League of Nations, any European integration, and imposed punishing terms of reparation payments for the losing countries.