'The persistence of discrimination against those groups and individuals remains a challenge to the construction of a tolerant and inclusive society, and only the guarantee of equality and non-discrimination policies can redress that imbalance and prevent those groups that are discriminated against from falling into or being trapped in poverty,' Ruteere emphasised.Poverty and discrimination In his report, the Special Rapporteur discusses the manifestations of poverty and racism in the areas of economic and social rights such as education, adequate housing and health care, and other rights affected in the link between racism and poverty, including the right to work in just conditions, social security, food and water.'Owing to their economic and social conditions, groups that are discriminated against are more exposed to health risks and diseases.Tags: Ed Miliband Fabian EssayMark Twain Life On The Mississippi EssayBook Review EssayIt Research PaperPythagorean Theorem Problem Solving WorksheetCounterclaim Essay
In his report, the Special Rapporteur welcomed the efforts and initiatives undertaken by various states to prohibit discrimination and segregation and to ensure full enjoyment of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights for all individuals and groups.
He noted that certain groups and individuals, including people of African descent, indigenous peoples, minorities, Roma, Dalits and migrants, are still confronted with poverty and discrimination, especially in the enjoyment of their economic and social rights.
He cited Minority Rights Group International as noting in 2009 that, of the 101 million children out of school and the 776 million illiterate adults, the majority are part of racial, ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities.
In many countries, the low enrolment rate of minority children is the result of official policies that fail to recognise the existence of minorities as part of the whole population and to take measures to ensure that they enjoy the rights guaranteed to every citizen.
Poverty is one of the causes of the low enrolment rates in schools of children from groups that are discriminated against.
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The Special Rapporteur is convinced that the full enjoyment of the right to education is the prerequisite for the full enjoyment of other rights, such as the right to work, freedom of expression, or even the right to health.This can lead to decreased life expectancy and poor health conditions for minorities living in marginalised areas.There is also a risk of mistrust in the official health services, due to stereotyping, but also due to the health service providers' lack of cultural knowledge of a particular cultural minority.Many inequalities in accessing adequate health care are related to social disparities and exclusion, themselves often the result of racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance.First, from a geographical point of view, access to health care is often limited for those living in rural or economically remote areas and disparities sometimes result from laws, policies or programmes which intentionally or not concentrate services in urban areas.The report said: 'Their situation is primarily the consequence of historical systems of inherited status, and of the formalised exclusion of certain traditional populations in modern societies, sometimes encouraged by authorities.Thus, even in countries where resources are sufficient to ensure to the whole population adequate standards of living, those groups and individuals do not fully benefit from those resources.' The Special Rapporteur believes that it is the obligation of governments to prevent marginalisation and to ensure protection as well as to guarantee the enjoyment of human rights for all, including the right to education, the right to adequate housing, the right to health or the right to food and safe water.In a report to the UN General Assembly, a UN rights expert has emphasised that poverty is closely associated with racism and contributes to the persistence of racist attitudes and practices which in turn generate more poverty.Racial or ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by poverty; and the lack of education, adequate housing and health care transmits poverty from generation to generation, a United Nations rights expert has said.'Legal insecurity of tenure for poor and marginalised ethnic and racial minorities in some cases forces some of the members of those communities to move to urban areas, where the only affordable housing is in informal and slum settlements with substandard housing conditions and the daily risks of eviction.' Adequate housing is also linked to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, he said, adding that poor sanitation and unhygienic practices are the indirect results of discrimination and the marginalisation suffered by racial minorities.'Groups that are discriminated against, especially those living in rural or remote areas, experience disparities in terms of access to sanitation and drinking water.