The dissatisfied noblemen complained about this "unnatural" state of affairs, and discovered similarities between absolute monarchy and bureaucratic despotism.With the translation of Confucian texts during the Enlightenment, the concept of a meritocracy reached intellectuals in the West, who saw it as an alternative to the traditional ancien regime of Europe.Tags: Royal Commonwealth Essay 2013Art Of Problem Solving GeometryHigh School Statistics ProjectDe Havilland Essay PurchasingThe Boy In The Striped Pajamas Movie EssayThe Homework ClubGuide To Writing A Research PaperStrike Nursing Assignments
Max Weber was the first to endorse bureaucracy as a necessary feature of modernity, and by the late 19th century bureaucratic forms had begun their spread from government to other large-scale institutions.
Within capitalist systems, informal bureaucratic structures began to appear in the form of corporate power hierarchies, as detailed in mid-century works like The Organization Man and The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit.
Meanwhile, in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc nations, a powerful class of bureaucratic administrators termed nomenklatura governed nearly all aspects of public life.
But paradoxically, that led to even further growth of the bureaucracy.
By the mid-19th century, bureaucratic forms of administration were firmly in place across the industrialized world.