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To exemplify, we refer to the critique against the grand narratives of social change and development that have dominated science since the Enlightenment (such as Marxism), and to the rise of competing but more partial theories and narratives from the 1950s (such as modernization theory, structuralism, etc).
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In particular, we will show if and how these researchers seek to combine critical with problem solving research and, more specifically, how they combine the objective to identify and critically evaluate a contemporary unsustainable phenomenon with the objective of proposing pathways to constructively deal with that challenge and issues associated with it.
The debated division between critical and problem-solving approaches is a methodological issue with a long history.
In the past century, science was dominated by the view that its chief role was to study and solve problems and that these are the two means by which science, technology, education, and democratic societies progress (Agre 1982).
Typically, and as expressed by political scientist Robert Cox (Cox 1981) a problem-solving approach takes the world as it is while critical research would question it in the quest for social change.Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management of Lake Vänern (15-60 credits) Study on the population structure of herring in the central and western Baltic Sea basen on the analysis of growth and otolith shape (30-60 credits) Energy content in the diet of breeding seabirds (Degree thesis project 15-60 credits) Thesis projects about salmon in river Dalälven (candidate/master, 15‐30 hp) Thesis projects about salmonids in river Dalälven (candidate/master, 15-45 hp) How does climate change impact fish populations?(30-60 credits, MSc level) Do growth patterns at sea affect salmon condition and reproduction?Among other things, science is a field of discussion and disputes where visions and worldviews are compared, defended, and contested.Clashes within and between scientific approaches, sometimes leading to paradigm shifts, are therefore both unavoidable and desirable.We do so based on Cox’s terminology, especially the concepts of ideas, institutions, material capabilities, and frameworks for action, and then show how selected research narratives apply them.To conclude, we emphasize that integrated understandings of human-environmental dynamics are facilitated by multiscalar approaches, theoretical and methodological pluralism, and a combination of natural and social science theory, typical of the interdisciplinary research field of sustainability science.one must nevertheless acknowledge the ideological component in all scientific knowledge.Scientific knowledge cannot be spared from ideological critique, and thus from self-knowledge and that also applies to those who think they possess the true science and denounce the ideology of others.Both history and acquaintance made me doubt that practitioners of the natural sciences possess firmer or more permanent answers to such questions than their colleagues in social science.Other scholars (e.g., Popper, Feyerabend, Habermas, Morin) view such controversies as an expression of how ideological differences in society are reflected in the field of science, sometimes leading to fierce debates between perspectives (Morin 190): If science cannot be reduced to ideology ...