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The market (as an "unconscious" mechanism for the distribution of goods) had been replaced by centralized planning.Yet, contrary to Marx's famous prediction in the Preface to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, this shift did not lead to "an era of social revolution", but rather to fascism and totalitarianism.
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In Questioning Qualitative Inquiry Martin Hammersley argues that the move away from natural science as a model for social inquiry involves a rejection of key principles that are essential for any commitment to research.
Discussing fifty years of change in qualitative social research, Martyn Hammersley's argument is pursued in concrete terms through discussion of specific issues, such as: - how to learn from the history of qualitative inquiry - can qualitative methodology be taught - the significance of researchers' commitment to tolerance - the role of rhetoric in research reports - the attitudes of qualitative researchers towards theory, evidence and validity.
A key theme is the current emphasis on discursive rather than social action as the focus of study, and the implications of this not just for the process of analysis but also for the use of various kinds of data.
At a time when qualitative inquiry is coming under challenge, as a result of pressure to serve evidence-based policymaking and practice, these issues are becoming increasingly pressing.
This version of "critical" theory derives from Kant's (18th-century) and Marx's (19th-century) use of the term "critique", as in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Marx's concept that his work Das Kapital (Capital) forms a "critique of political economy".
For Kant's transcendental idealism, "critique" means examining and establishing the limits of the validity of a faculty, type, or body of knowledge, especially through accounting for the limitations imposed by the fundamental, irreducible concepts in use in that knowledge system.
In Habermas's work, critical theory transcended its theoretical roots in German idealism and progressed closer to American pragmatism.
Concern for social "base and superstructure" is one of the remaining Marxist philosophical concepts in much of contemporary critical theory.